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Part A. Language systems
1. Label each of the following as an example of (L)anguage or (C)ommunication. Briefly explain (a sentence or two) why each belongs to the identified category. (10 points)
a. A scout bee arrives back at his hive and begins an elaborate dance to inform his colony where a pollen source is located.
b. A father raises his eyebrow in disapproval at his childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s choice of clothing for a wedding ceremony for family friends.
c. You see the following street sign in Madrid.
d. Ã¢â‚¬Å“DonÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t eat that last piece of cake!
2. Match the following. (5 points)
a) study of the minimal meaningful units in language
b) study of contextualized usage in language
c) study of the system of sounds in language
d) study of structures at the phrase, clause, and sentence levels in language
e) study of meanings and their distribution in language
3. Rephrase each nonstandard dialect statement in the standard equivalent. Then, explain briefly (3-4 sentences) how it would be possible for both versions of each statement to be considered ‘correct.’ Note: You are crafting a single explanation for the acceptability of nonstandard/standard pairs Ã¢â‚¬â€œ NOT a separate explanation for each pair. (14 points)
I ainÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t got no books with me.
He all right.
He donÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t know what he talkinÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ about.
I am knowing his name.
You didnÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t get an A. Yes (I didnÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t).
Give me some of them biscuits.
ItÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s a right cold morninÃ¢â‚¬â„¢.
4. How do the following utterances illustrate the rule-governed nature of language? Explain briefly. (5 points)
Ã‚Â· Ã¢â‚¬Å“Dog the brown old house the around ran already chased he once.Ã¢â‚¬Â
Ã‚Â· Ã¢â‚¬Å“He already chased the old brown dog around the house once.Ã¢â‚¬Â
Part B. Phonetics/Phonology
1. Transcribe the following words. You are welcome to transcribe in ipa.typeit.org and paste here. (15 points)
2. Conceptual review. Each item should take no more than one sentence to answer. (15 points)
Explain how a stop is made. Give examples of two stops in English, one voiced and one voiceless (use symbols).
Explain how a fricative is made. Give examples of two fricatives in English, one voiced and one voiceless (use symbols).
Explain how an affricate is made. Give examples of two affricates in English, one voiced and one voiceless (use symbols).
Explain how a nasal is made. Give examples of one nasal in English (use symbols).
Explain how a liquid is made. Give an example of a liquid in English (use symbols).
Explain the basic articulatory difference between consonants and vowels.
Explain the basic articulatory similarity between diphthongs and glides.
3. Provide the symbol for each of the following sounds of U.S. English. Use ipa.typeit.org and paste if convenient. (15 points)
diphthong moving from low back to high front
glide moving from high back to central
high lax front vowel
high tense back rounded vowel
high tense front vowel
low lax unrounded back vowel
mid lax front vowel
mid tense front vowel
mid unrounded central vowel
voiced alveolar fricative
voiced interdental fricative
voiced velar stop
voiceless bilabial stop
voiceless glottal fricative
voiceless alveopalatal affricate
4. Analyze the data and answer each question. (15 points)
[Ã‰Âªzil] butterfly [salizo] fry [flÃƒÂ¦kso] leaf
[sali] pan [rezada] flower [klas] bud
[rofti] girl [fasto] easy [salÃ‰Âª] oil
[fÃ‰Âªzu] leap [klÃŽÂµs] tree [stava] limb
a. In this language, are [s] and [z] separate phonemes or allophones of the same phoneme?
b. If you believe that [s] and[z] are phonemes, provide evidence to support that analysis (hint: minimal pair?). If you think they are allophones, provide evidence to support that analysis (hint: no minimal pair?).
c. If they are allophones, identify the base phoneme and the rule for the allophonic variation. (Hint: Remember to consider the conditioning environment in terms of the sounds that both precede and follow the [s] and [z].) Generate an appropriate rule (A > B/Ã¢â‚¬Â¦) or prose statement to illustrate/explain your conclusion.
Bonus Question (Natural Classes): Based on your analysis of [s] and [z] and, considering the words [rofti], [flÃƒÂ¦kso], [fÃ‰Âªzu], [fasto] and [stave], could you make a generalization re. a phonological rule that may apply to a particular natural class of sounds in this language? (Hint: Think about s/z and f/v and articulatory characteristics they might share…)
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